Definition of Journal

Journal is a day books in which bookkeeper records all the transaction first time . Transaction must be record in this book date wise and journal applies the rules of double entry system .
Suppose Ram takes loan of Rs.100000 from his friend. Then what come in is cash and so cash account will be debited and His friend is giver of loan, so his friend’s loan account will be credited in journal

Journal entry will be passed in the journal of Ram

Cash Account Dr. 100000 /
To Friend’s loan Account / 100000

In other words journal is the book of primary entry . Whenever any transaction or event occurs it is recorded in the first instance in the journal . There are various types of journal.
  1. Purchase day book → to record transactions relating to credit purchases.
  2. Sales day book → to record transactions relating to credit sales.
  3. Purchase return book → to record transactions relating to purchase returns.
  4. Cash book → to record cash , bank and discount transactions .
  5. Journal Proper → to record other transactions for which no specific journal is maintained .
All transaction are first recorded in the journal as and when they occur , the record is chronological , as otherwise it would be difficult to maintain the record in an orderly manner. The form of journal is given below :

Date ↓ particular ↓ L.F. ↓ Dr. Amount ↓ Cr. Amount ↓

The columns have been numbered only to make clear the following explanations but otherwise they are not numbered . The following point should be noted :

(i) In the first column the date of the transaction is entered , the year is written at the top , then month and in the narrow part of the column the particular is entered .

(ii) In the second column , the names of the accounts involved are written , first the account to be debited , with the word Dr. written towards the end of the column. In the next line , after leaving little space , the name of the account to be credited is written preceded by the word To ( the modern practice shows inclination towards omitting Dr and To . Then in the next line the explanation for the entry together with necessary details is given , this is called narration .

(iii) In the third column the number of the page in the ledger on which the account is written up is entered

(iv) In the fourth column , the amounts to be debited to the various accounts concerned is entered .

(v) In fifth column , the amount to be credited to the various account is entered .
Before one can journalise transactions , one must think on the basis of the rules given above , the effect of the transactions on assets , liabilities , expenses , gains etc. of the firm . In accordance with the effect , the accounts to be debited or credited will be determined . Then the entry will be made in the journal as indicated above .

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Accounting Education: Definition of Journal
Definition of Journal
Accounting Education
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