How to Prepare a Balance Sheet of Company

Preparation of balance sheet of company is very necessary, because Indian Company law 1956 gives strict instruction about the format of balance sheet of a company. A company can make balance sheet according to the form given in Part I of schedule VI of company law 1956. A company can also make balance sheet summary form, but it has to attach its schedule in which explanation of different components are given. We are explaining different components of balance sheet of company which will be helpful for students to prepare balance sheet of company.

[* Remember the form of balance sheet under Section 211]

You should remember balance sheet and its all components thoroughly. It can be made either horizontal or vertical form. But total of assets should be equal to total of liabilities. Here, I am explaining these components.

Assets Side of Balance Sheet

Assets are written in right side of company’s balance sheet. In these assets, we include.

   1. Fixed Assets

We will show all fixed assets which are purchased and used in business. This is the long term expenditure of company. In these assets, we will include following.

I)                    Land

II)                  Building

III)                Plant and Machinery

IV)               Furniture and Fixture

V)                 Leasehold assets

VI)               Development of property

VII)             Vehicles

VIII)           Live stocks

IX)                Railway sidings

X)                  Equipment

We also include intangible assets in fixed assets head. Following are the main examples of intangible assets.

I)        Goodwill
II)        Patents
III)      Trade marks and design

Depreciation is charged on every fixed asset except land, because value of land will increase after some time. Here, students are given advice that they should calculate the value of net fixed assets, if different fixed assets are purchased or sold during the year. The following table will be the part of working note.

2.  Treatment of Investment in balance sheet

Investment is outflow of fund for getting interest or dividend earning. So, it is the asset of company and will include in assets side. The following are the main investments.

a)                  Investment in Government or trust securities.

b)                  Investment in Shares, debentures or bonds

The following points must be kept in mind while you are showing investment in balance sheet.

i)                    Investment in fully paid up shares must be shown separately from investment in partly paid up shares.

ii)                   Investment in the form of shares in subsidiary company must be shown separately from investment in any other company.

c)                   Investment in immovable properties.

d)                  Investment in the capital of partnership firms.

Investment will be shown on cost or market value which is less.

3.  Treatment of current assets , loan and advances in balance sheet

Current assets will be shown in separate head and following components will be included in it.

i)                    Stock in trade

ii)                   Work in progress

iii)                 Stock of stationary

iv)                 Stock of loose tools

v)                  Stock of stores and spare parts

vi)                 Sundry debtors less provision for doubtful debts

vii)               Cash in hand

viii)              Bank balance

a)      With schedule bank

b)      With other banks

B)      Loan and Advances

The amount which is given by company to others in the form of loan or advances will be shown in asset side. Followings are its main examples.

a)      Advance and loan to subsidiary company

b)      Advance and loan to partnership firm

c)       Bill of exchange / Bill receivables

d)      Advance expenses paid

e)      Outside incomes.

4. Miscellaneous expenditures

Expenses which are not written off will be shown in asset side of balance sheet. There is no market value of these expenses. Examples are given below.

i)                    Preliminary expenses

ii)                   Commission or brokerage of subscription of shares or debentures

iii)                 Discount allowed on issue or shares and debentures

iv)                 Interest paid out of capital during construction

v)                  Development expenditure

5.  Profit and Loss Account

If company suffers net loss after adjusting all reserves, then it will be shown in asset side. This amount can be also deducted from reserves in liabilities side. That time, we will not show it in asset side.

Liabilities Side of Balance Sheet

Liabilities are written in left side of company’s balance sheet. In these liabilities, we include.

1.   Share Capital

In share capital of company, we have to show authorized capital, subscribed capital, called up capital and paid up capital. For calculating paid up capital, we will deduct calls unpaid and add original paid up amount of forfeited shares.

2.   Reserves and Surplus

Following reserves will be shown in liabilities side of balance sheet of company.

i)                    Capital reserves

ii)                   Share premium account

iii)                 Other reserves

iv)                 Surplus balance in profit and loss account after providing dividend, bonus or reserves.

v)                  Sinking fund

3.   Secured Loan

If any loan is taken by company after keeping any asset as security, then it will be shown in secured loan head. Its detail is given below.

i)                    Debentures

ii)                   Loan and advances from subsidiaries

iii)                 Other loan and advances

iv)                 Interest payable on secured loan

4.  Unsecured loan

Following will be the unsecured loan.

i)                    Fixed deposits of public

ii)                   Short term loans and advances

iii)                 Other loans

5. Current Liabilities and Provisions

All liabilities which is payable within one year, will be included in current liabilities head.

A) Current Liabilities

i)                    Acceptance or bill payables

ii)                   Sundry creditors

iii)                 Interest payable other than on loan

iv)                 Outstanding expenditures

B)      Provisions

i)                    Provisions for taxations

ii)                   Proposed dividend

iii)                 Provision for provident fund

iv)                 Provision for insurance, pension and other staff benefit schemes

v)                  Other provisions

6.  Contingent liabilities

These types of liabilities will not be shown in balance sheet. But a simple footnote is made for its detail. Following may be the contingent liabilities of company.

i)                    Claims against the company not acknowledge as debts

ii)                   Uncalled liability on shares paid

iii)                 Areas of fixed cumulative dividends

iv)                 Any other contingent liability of company 



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Accounting Education: How to Prepare a Balance Sheet of Company
How to Prepare a Balance Sheet of Company
Accounting Education
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