Preparation of balance sheet of company is very necessary, because Indian Company law 1956 gives strict instruction about the format of balance sheet of a company. A company can make balance sheet according to the form given in Part I of schedule VI of company law 1956. A company can also make balance sheet summary form, but it has to attach its schedule in which explanation of different components are given. We are explaining different components of balance sheet of company which will be helpful for students to prepare balance sheet of company.
[* Remember the form of balance sheet under Section 211]
You should remember balance sheet and its all components thoroughly. It can be made either horizontal or vertical form. But total of assets should be equal to total of liabilities. Here, I am explaining these components.
Assets Side of Balance Sheet
Assets are written in right side of company’s balance sheet. In these assets, we include.
1. Fixed Assets
We will show all fixed assets which are purchased and used in business. This is the long term expenditure of company. In these assets, we will include following.
III) Plant and Machinery
IV) Furniture and Fixture
V) Leasehold assets
VI) Development of property
VIII) Live stocks
IX) Railway sidings
We also include intangible assets in fixed assets head. Following are the main examples of intangible assets.
III) Trade marks and design
Depreciation is charged on every fixed asset except land, because value of land will increase after some time. Here, students are given advice that they should calculate the value of net fixed assets, if different fixed assets are purchased or sold during the year. The following table will be the part of working note.
2. Treatment of Investment in balance sheet
Investment is outflow of fund for getting interest or dividend earning. So, it is the asset of company and will include in assets side. The following are the main investments.
a) Investment in Government or trust securities.
The following points must be kept in mind while you are showing investment in balance sheet.
i) Investment in fully paid up shares must be shown separately from investment in partly paid up shares.
ii) Investment in the form of shares in subsidiary company must be shown separately from investment in any other company.
c) Investment in immovable properties.
d) Investment in the capital of partnership firms.
Investment will be shown on cost or market value which is less.
3. Treatment of current assets , loan and advances in balance sheet
Current assets will be shown in separate head and following components will be included in it.
i) Stock in trade
ii) Work in progress
iii) Stock of stationary
iv) Stock of loose tools
v) Stock of stores and spare parts
vii) Cash in hand
a) With schedule bank
b) With other banks
B) Loan and Advances
The amount which is given by company to others in the form of loan or advances will be shown in asset side. Followings are its main examples.
a) Advance and loan to subsidiary company
b) Advance and loan to partnership firm
c) Bill of exchange / Bill receivables
d) Advance expenses paid
e) Outside incomes.
4. Miscellaneous expenditures
Expenses which are not written off will be shown in asset side of balance sheet. There is no market value of these expenses. Examples are given below.
i) Preliminary expenses
ii) Commission or brokerage of subscription of shares or debentures
iii) Discount allowed on issue or shares and debentures
iv) Interest paid out of capital during construction
v) Development expenditure
5. Profit and Loss Account
If company suffers net loss after adjusting all reserves, then it will be shown in asset side. This amount can be also deducted from reserves in liabilities side. That time, we will not show it in asset side.
Liabilities Side of Balance Sheet
Liabilities Side of Balance Sheet
Liabilities are written in left side of company’s balance sheet. In these liabilities, we include.
2. Reserves and Surplus
Following reserves will be shown in liabilities side of balance sheet of company.
i) Capital reserves
ii) Share premium account
iii) Other reserves
iv) Surplus balance in profit and loss account after providing dividend, bonus or reserves.
v) Sinking fund
3. Secured Loan
If any loan is taken by company after keeping any asset as security, then it will be shown in secured loan head. Its detail is given below.
ii) Loan and advances from subsidiaries
iii) Other loan and advances
iv) Interest payable on secured loan
4. Unsecured loan
Following will be the unsecured loan.
i) Fixed deposits of public
ii) Short term loans and advances
iii) Other loans
5. Current Liabilities and Provisions
All liabilities which is payable within one year, will be included in current liabilities head.
A) Current Liabilities
i) Acceptance or bill payables
ii) Sundry creditors
iii) Interest payable other than on loan
ii) Proposed dividend
iii) Provision for provident fund
iv) Provision for insurance, pension and other staff benefit schemes
v) Other provisions
6. Contingent liabilities
These types of liabilities will not be shown in balance sheet. But a simple footnote is made for its detail. Following may be the contingent liabilities of company.
i) Claims against the company not acknowledge as debts
ii) Uncalled liability on shares paid
iii) Areas of fixed cumulative dividends